Training And Its Effects : Revision, Page 5
To improve muscular endurance [Endurance: The ability to work hard for long periods of time.] you must repeatedly work and contract [Contract: A muscle tenses as fibres shorten.] the muscle groups you aim to develop.
Circuit training [Circuit training: Performing a series of exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each activity takes place at a station.] involves body weight exercise [Exercise: Physical activity to improve health and fitness.] such as sit-ups, press-ups, and squat thrusts. Circuit training can be adapted to a specific activity; for example, badminton lunges and basketball chest passes.
Weight room training [Weight training: Using free weights or weight machines to provide resistance to the muscles.] involves loading the muscles with exercises like bench presses and leg extensions [Extension: Straightening limbs at a joint.] . These could be part of a weight room circuit. Use low weights around 50% of your maximum lift. The lifts should be repeated many times, at moderate speed [Speed: The differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move.] .
To improve strength you must overload specific muscle groups with heavy weights – around eighty percent of your maximum lift. Low repetitions at a slow speed are required.
You can improve speed [Speed: The differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move.] in two ways –
Sprint training trains muscles to act quickly and powerfully. But long periods of rest are required so that the muscles can recover before working hard again. For example, you might do three sets [Sets: How many times a number of reps is repeated, eg 3 sets of 10 press-ups/] of ten sprints. You could sprint for five seconds and rest for thirty seconds. This is known as a work to rest ratio of one to six. You may also have a five-minute break between sets.
Increasing the strength of the muscle group. As we know, more strength can help produce more power [Power: The ability to do strength performances quickly. Power = Strength x Speed.] . More power will produce more body speed. For example, more power in the legs will produce more whole body speed. More power in the arm muscles leads to more limb speed [Speed: The differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move.] for striking actions.
To improve power you must overload specific muscle groups, again with heavy weights and low repetitions. However, to improve the explosive force of power, the repetitions should be done at a fast speed.
To improve flexibility [Flexibility: The range of movement possible at a joint.] the muscles and their connective tissue must be held in or moved through a fully extended position for between ten to fifteen seconds. Each stretch should be repeated several times, and it’s best to train every day at a time when the body temperature is raised.